Gurbani is referred to any compositions by the Sikh Gurus. It also includes the verses of other writers of Guru Granth Sahib, the holy book of teh Sikhs. Guru Granth Sahib was given the status of permanent Guru by the Guru Gobins Singh. He declared that the Guru Grnath Sahib must be revered as the spirit and the body of the ten Gurus as the book contains the teachings of the all the Sikh Gurus.These teachings or banis are scripted in the Guru Granth Sahib and are known as Gurbanis which are generally read by the Sikhs every day. The Guru Granth Sahib which is also known as AdiGranth has 1430 pages and 5864 verses and the content of the AdiGranth is known as the Gurbani or bani.History behind the Gurbani
According to the AdiGranth, Gurbani is a sound that comes straight from the Supreme and the book is written in the form of the same sound in scripts and worldly language. The verses explain the qualities of the Supreme and a Sikh can attain the supreme state by comprehending the Gurbani. Few historical facts about Gurbani are:
- The Gurbanis were compiled in the Granth by Fifth Sikh Guru ArjanDevji. He collected and compiled all the hymns and compositions of Guru Nanak and other Gurus.
- He dictated them to BhaiGurdasji who was the writer of the AdiGranth.
- The language of the Holy Book is a mixture of all the Aryan languages that you can find in India but is written in Gurumukhi script.
- The Granth contains 937 hymns of Muslims and Hindus saints and they are all considered as Gurbanis like the hymns of the Gurus.
The word Gurbani means the speech of the conscious mind or the speech of wisdom. It consists of two words i.e.Gur (wisdom) and Bani (speech). It is a source of wisdom and truth and it eradicates you of any sin and internal filth. Among all the verses, Nitnem is a collection of banis which are read by the Sikhs in everyday life. This mainly includes:
- Japji Sahib: It is the first bani or the AdiGranth which was compiled by the Guru Nanak Dev. It is referred as the Song of the Soul. It starts with the root chant or the MoolMantar that essentially describes the true nature of the human being. It begins with the “IkOnkar” sound that brings the experience of oneness. This Mool Mantra is followed by 38 hymns and a final shlok. The Japji Sahib is considered to be the most significant bani by the Sikhs.
- Jaap Sahib: It consists of 199 verses and was composed by the last living Guru. It praises different aspects of God and is generally recited during the Amrit ceremony.
- Tav-Prasad Savaiye: It is a short hymn from the DasamGranth compiled by 10th Guru in the praise of God
- BentiChaupai: It is recited in the evenings to gain spiritual safety. It is also from the DasamGranth and written by Guru Gobind SinghJi.
Apart from the above mentioned hymns and verses there are many other verses of Gurbani like Anand Sahib, Rehas Sahib and KirtanSohilawhich were written by the other Sikh Gurus.